Posts Tagged ‘Composition’

“Monitoring Columbia’s Daughters: Writing as Gendered Conduct”

The mental flower garden: Or, An instructive and entertaining companion for the fair sex, 1807

With greater access and attention given to educating women, textbooks written specifically for women appeared where “white women’s rhetorical training was closely aligned with a particular kind of moral and civic conduct – gendered conduct” (47). By tracing textbooks produced by Donald Fraser, including revisions and different editions of similar works, the authors show developments in gender biases as reflected in this instructional material. Civic rhetoric was viewed as integral to the maintenance of the Republic, with women’s training in these areas important for the upholding of American ideals, largely in their roles as mothers to sons who required this training as part of their civic duty. In this sense, though mothering is still viewed as a private, domestic affair, because of its potential effects upon the state and society, “such mothering is ultimately a public role” (52). Additionally, rhetorical training was deemed necessary for women in order to guard against the male persuasive powers of seduction, thus in America at this time was “the notion that seduction and illiteracy are linked” (53). Fraser’s texts somewhat surprisingly move from a substantial, rigorous rhetorical training for women in post-colonial American, to the more restrictive “learning as conduct” mode, then finally to simpler, morality-based education for women by 1800 (63). This trend of movement from expansion to constriction of rhetorical education for women somewhat mimics the move by formerly all-male colleges that admitted women to “change their minds” as women excelled, only to exclude them again. It also demonstrates a tacit knowledge of the powers of rhetorical training, where regulation of that knowledge, or a channeling of its strategies into more culturally-endorsed, gendered avenues, seemed important in order to maintain the status quo and stabilize the gender inequalities so prevalent at the time.


Works Cited:

Eldred, Janet Carey and Peter Mortensen. “Monitoring Columbia’s Daughters: Writing as Gendered Conduct.” Rhetoric Society Quarterly 23.3/4 (Summer-Autumn 1994): 46-69. Print.

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“The Agora,” The Western Oxford’s, and The Nellie Tilton Warfield Essay Prize

“The Agora”was a women’s club initiated at Western in 1894 that promoted discussion, lectures, and intellectual development amongst its members stating that its mission is “first, to awaken and develop the interest of its members in all vital questions, and to prepare them for active participation in the great movements of the day – literary, social, and philanthropic.” In the first program produced by this club, twice-monthly lectures are

The Agora program 1895

announced that are given by various members of the club. Each month has a topic: “History and Travel,” “Literature and Fine Arts,” and “Contemporary Events.” Particular subjects include, “Greek Music,” “Debate: Resolved, That the House of Lords should be abolished,” “The French Revolution and its Relation to English Poetry,” “The Noble Peasant in Russia,” and “The Eastern Question.” Given the practice of reciting compositions, it is likely that these lectures were fully or largely written prior to their delivery, though unfortunately I could find no remaining samples of these papers. Additionally, this shows evidence of public debate amongst the women as part of these activities, a skill often denied to women at this time. The topics delivered demonstrate an interest and knowledge of diverse issues, as well as a sophisticated awareness of the purpose of these meetings and the audience to which these deliveries would be addressed.  It further demonstrates the initiative of the women of Western in creating, sharing, and providing educational opportunities to one another in addition to their official curriculum.

The Western Oxford’s were publications produced quarterly and seem to have been distributed via subscription. Included within them are reports about students and alumnae, mention of major events, editorials, letters from alumnae, fictional stories, essays, and lists of new additions to the library. By reviewing these publications, additional information about Western can be gained, including the types of writing that students were doing near the end of the nineteenth century, and the books to which they had access.

I was especially interested in The Nellie Tilton Warfield Essay Prize, as the winning essay each year was to be published in The Western Oxford’s and would give an example of an exemplary essay for that year. Publication of these essays did not appear to occur with complete regularity, however, and I was only able to find a couple that still fell within the timeframe of the nineteenth century. The two that I reviewed, from 1896 and 1989, were both literary analyses on a George Elliot novel and Wordsworth, respectively. These essays give some insight as to the type of writing students were doing by the turn of the century, as by this time, seniors were required to take a History of Literature course along with English Composition; it is possible that the winning essay was taken from assignments produced in this class, given the topics and the centrality of literature to them.

Works Cited:

“The Agora: 1895.” Western College Memorial Archives,16 Peabody Hall,  Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Print Original.

“The Nellie Tilton Warfield Essay Prize.” The Western Oxford’s 4.4 (1896) and 7.1 (1898). Print.

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“Thinking Like That: The Ideal Nineteenth Century Student Writer”

Antioch College, 1800's

In this chapter, Kathleen Walsh examines the composition assignments of Mahala PearsonJay, a woman who attended Oberlin College and Antioch between the years of1850 – 1857, asking the question: What would it have meant to think and write through the lens of culture and the rhetorical texts used at the time? Through close readings of a handful of Jay’s essays, Walsh highlights the particular rhetorical strategies employed by Jay that were recommended in texts of the time, specifically those found in Newman’s and Whately’s, both of which were familiar to Jay. Jay also shows a strong preference for “impersonal” writing, which Walsh describes as being based upon (largely educational) experiences that “inflect the personal rather than producing the personal” (36). This style makes Jay’s essays rhetorically effective, demonstrating her use of the sophisticated practices of argument structure, audience awareness, and adeptly descriptive narratives. I found this chapter interesting as it examined a serious female student who attended other colleges in the state of Ohio during the same time period and who was also from a similar socioeconomic background as students from Western, but at different institutions with alternative philosophies and practices (co-educational, non-seminary) in their approaches to educating women. I also found the discussion near the beginning of this chapter of interest, wherein Walsh mentions the differences found between college students in the eastern United States at this time, versus those found in western (which includes Oxford, Ohio, thus the name “Western” given to that institution) colleges in the areas of class, socioeconomic status, dedication, and focus. I likewise appreciated the “close reading approach” of this chapter, rather than a broader focus, though would have enjoyed reading even more of Jay’s compositions if space had allowed.

Work Cited: 

Walsh, Kathleen A. “Thinking Like That: The Ideal Nineteenth Century Student Writer.” Local Histories: Reading the Archives of Composition. Ed. Patricia Donahue and Gretchen Flesher Moon. Pittsburg, PA: U of Pittsburg P, 2007. 14-37. Print.

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The Letters of Jane and Jennie Williams, 1862-1867

The Letters of Jane and Jennie Williams, 1862-1867This lengthy series of letters were written mostly by Jane, but partially by Jennie, Williams during the years of 1862 through 1867. They are addressed primarily to “Dear Brother Roger,” ostensibly a younger brother who was, given the content of the letters, also working on academic studies and came from a family that did not live all that far away from Western in Paddy’s Run, about four miles west of Ross, Ohio. In these letters, Jane offers insights into the composition pedagogy at Western, mentioning the time spent working on this writing, as well as “special assignments” given by Miss Peabody where students are asked to compose a letter rather than a regular assignment. She also mentions that compositions are orally recited each week and that feedback/criticism is offered by other students; specific assignment topics, and a newspaper “called the Kailiedscope which was composed of pieces written by the girls in the first division of compositions” are also mentioned (November 27, 1863). Jane also discusses a composition assignment where they were asked “to write a letter to our little brothers about 12 or 13 years old, and tell him how to write compositions,” which is an interesting meta-cognitive reflective piece that was unfortunately not included in this collection (September 23, 1863).  Also evident from these letters is the amount of domestic work expected from the students; as time goes on, Jane complains more and more of exhaustion and it is clear that her health begins to suffer by the end of the letters.

These letters offer significant insight into the type of personal correspondence conducted by

"Dear Brother Roger"

the women at Western, as well as offering information about the composition requirements, assignments, and practices that were utilized. Also apparent is the sheer amount of writing that was regularly enacted at this time – there is often mention of a number of letters written, as well as criticisms toward the receiver if he has been negligent in his own letter writing duties. This type of writing appears much less regulated that that found in Adda Collier’s journal, the audience for which was the faculty at Western, rather than the more intimate rhetorical situation of letters sent to family members. The views expressed in student letters are often different than accounts of the school offered by faculty in their Letters to Holyoke, a difference that is important to the areas I am researching in this project.

Work Cited:

“Williams, Jane & Jennie. Letters. 1862-1867.” Western College Memorial Archives,16 Peabody Hall,  Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Original Copies and Typed Transcriptions.

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Section Book: 1858-1859 and Composition Assignment Sheet

In the early days of Western, marks for certain aspects of the educational experience were tallied in Section Books; this particular book tracks the performance of a group of seventeen women whose last names began with the letters A through G for this academic school year. On the first pages of the book, there is a detailed list of particular regular activities (such as Weekly Reports and Payment of debts) listed, along with a considerably longer list of apparent infractions (Wardrobe not in order, Riding without permission, Taking company to rooms, Sitting or lying on spreads or quilts, Delaying in halls, etc.) that were tracked for each student on an ongoing basis.

In the front cover of this Section Book, I found a handwritten Composition Assignment that gave the directions for the weekly requirement for this course, which at this time was required during all three years of the Western education. According to this document, assignments were required to be written on composition paper, thirty lines long, and handed in at the fifteen minute bell before dinner [on Saturday]. Additionally, the document states that “the required time is 3 hrs.; more or less than that time is plus or minus. Less than two hours is delinquency. Time spent in reading or writing on subjects not finally used is not counted.” It is clear from this assignment that length and time spent writing are what is of the highest importance, though from the Section Book it is clear that other criteria were also tracked in student writing.

The Section Book has a two-page spread entitled “Composition Times” with the seventeen students listed in the far left column, along with their composition times listed for each week as plus or minus amounts of time, as in +1/2, – ¼, =,  etc. An additional two-page spread tracking the same students is entitled “Number of Mis-spelled Words” and likewise tracks this amount for each student. Time spent on Domestic Duties is also tracked in this book; these times were recorded on pages between the “Composition Times” and “Number of Mis-spelled Words.” Grades,  per say, are not recorded in this book.

Bessie Nelson’s Journal

A similar Section Book was also found for the years 1880-1881 recorded by Bessie Nelson. She, too, records “Composition Times” in her book, though in this case, she tracks times by plus or minus quarter-hour intervals, as in +60, -15, +30, etc. In week twenty-nine, the

Bessie Nelson

times are totaled and +X, -X, or = signs are indicated. Nelson’s book does not include a table of misspellings, thus it is uncertain if these were assessed or not at this time. Other aspects of student life tracked in Nelson’s journal are domestic duties, money given for missionary work, behavioral infractions, absences, tardiness, and meeting wardrobe expectations.

I have chosen to use these documents as a means of understanding the ways that composition assignments were given and expected to be fulfilled. It is interesting to note that time spent writing and the length of the pieces were of such great importance, more so even than content or (at least at some point) correctness. When composition is mentioned by students in letters, it is with an attitude of disdain and dread, much like the domestic work that takes so much time from their lives. It seems, from the way that composition scores were assessed and recorded, that these practices were placed on much the same level as domestic duties, as evidenced by both the reactions from the students, as well as the recording methods of the faculty. This is helpful in situating the practice of writing from both a pedagogical perspective and as a requirement within the lives of students at Western, giving an example of the type of prescribed, regulated, and obligatory writing that they were expected to do as part of their education, and the ways in which it was assessed.

Works Cited:

“Section Book: 1858-1859,” “Composition Assignment Sheet,” and “Bessie Nelson’s Journal.” Western College Memorial Archives,16 Peabody Hall,  Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Original Copies.

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 Journal/Composition Assignments by Adda Collier, 1876 – 1877

This set of thirteen journal entries by Adda Collier appear to be composition assignments that were written between September of 1876 and April of 1877. The two distinguishing features that lead me to assume that these are composition assignments are 1) there are times written on the more complete writings, all of which designate “3 hours,” the time that students were required to spend on their weekly composition assignments and 2) the titles seem to indicate the prompt, either assigned or suggested, given to the students for the assignment.

As substantiated in the Composition Assignment found in the Section Book, students were required to write thirty lines of prose in three hours – no more, and no less – each week. The more substantial pieces found in Collier’s journal note that three hours were taken to complete each piece; these pieces are comprised of about four hundred twenty to four hundred fifty words each, which likely correlates to the thirty (handwritten) lines required for the assignment. They take up approximately one and a quarter typed (transcribed) pages, and one (“Dear Friend”) is reminiscent of the Letters Theme mentioned by Jane Williams in her letters to her brother, Roger. The other titles of entries appear to be prompts or suggestions given by an outside source, as Collier often seems to have little to say about the topic and repeats and/or contradicts herself, which implies that the topic may not have been self-selected.

I’ve chosen these journal entries to use in this project as they are the only direct sample of class assignments from Western I have found from this time period that were not essay prize winners from later in the century. Additionally, this gives some examples of drafts (possibly) not used as final compositions, attempts at writing, possible true free writing in some instances (there are some subjectless pieces that do not include times), as well as historically, culturally, and personally intriguing insights into the thought processes of Collier.

Work Cited:

“Journal of Adda Collier 1876-1877.” Western College Memorial Archives,16 Peabody Hall,  Miami University, Oxford, Ohio. Transcribed Print Copy.

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“Cultural Models of Womanhood and Female Education.”

In this chapter, Rouse focuses on ideas of containment and agency in the writings of nineteenth century female students, viewing these embedded aspects of educating women through the lens of female colonization and the rhetoric of accommodation. While education for women at this time

A Western Classrrom

largely focused on preparing women for their “true” calling of wife and mother, Rouse shows how education and literacy created multiple tensions for many women who sought ways to resist, or at least express their frustration, with the limitations put upon them by society. I appreciated the recognition by the author that trying to categorize women’s writing at this time as falling into two baskets of “containment” and “possibility” was too reductive, and thus Rouse attempts to show the complexity of conflicting possibilities in these narratives, while being clear about the limited nature of this particular study. Many of these tensions also interest me in the writing I have found in my research, and like the author, I would enjoy seeing more samples from this time explored in a similar way, which is partially what I hope to do with my own work in this area.

Work Cited:

Rouse, P. Joy. “Cultural Models of Womanhood and Female Education.” Nineteenth Century Women Learn to Write. Ed. Catherine Hobbs. Charlottesville, VA: UP Virginia, 1995. 230-247. Print.

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